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Engineering and Applied Science

Building understanding of nature’s power at water’s edge

Ryan Mulligan, Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering
Queen’s civil engineering professor Ryan Mulligan is a coastal engineer who specializes in waves, storms, and changes to shorelines. (University Communications) 

The 2017 hurricane season is one for the record books. A seemingly relentless line of storms tore, one after another, across the Caribbean and into the Gulf Coast. Seventeen of them were strong enough to be named, with the strongest – Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Maria, and Nate – conspiring to inflict an estimated 350 deaths and some $400 billion in property damage.

“Climate change is driving sea level rise that will directly impact coastal areas,” says Ryan Mulligan, Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering. “But the oceans are also getting warmer and it’s the heat energy in them that drives the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones. The warmer the ocean, the more fuel hurricanes have, the farther north they can go, the longer in the year they can last, and the more intense they can be.”

Dr. Mulligan is a coastal engineer who specializes in waves, storms and changes to shorelines. He works closely with Queen’s civil engineering professor Andy Take to study tsunamis generated by landslides, and Queen’s civil engineering professor Leon Boegman to study wave and water level effects on Lake Ontario. Dr. Mulligan also recently earned a grant from the US Office of Naval Research to study waves and sediment movement at a US Army Corps of Engineers site in North Carolina. He plans to continue all that work, and investigate the future effects of hurricanes on coastlines.

“I’m interested in the physics of the situation, how waves behave, and everything we do as engineers is driven by a societal need,” he says. “Hurricanes can destroy roads and pipelines, knock buildings into the ocean, and scour through barrier islands that separate bodies of salt and fresh water. All this can cost lives and billions in property damage and economic loss, not just in the Caribbean and the U.S. but in the Atlantic provinces, Quebec, and Ontario, too.”

So, what does Dr. Mulligan plan to do to help prepare for more frequent and intense storms in the future?

“The first thing we should do, and the direction I’m going, is more research into potential impacts,” he says. “We’re using new computer models to predict outcomes in a particular area from stronger and stronger storms. We explore hypothetical scenarios and develop mitigation strategies after validating computer models using data we gather during real-world storms.” 

As those computer models become more and more reliable, engineers and planners will have more information to help inform decisions about emergency preparedness and where to – and where not to – build buildings and infrastructure. It’s research that will help people to adapt more quickly and safely to the coming realities of climate change.

Mulligan also mentors or co-mentors a group of graduate students who work on various projects, including Queen’s PhD candidates Gemma Bullard and Ramy Marmoush, and master’s candidates Alexander Rey and Fatemeh Gholamimahyari. He also works with undergraduate research students and will be looking to recruit more graduate students in the fall.

“My previous students work at Baird and other consulting firms in Canada, the U.S. and the UK,” says Mulligan. “All my grad students who have finished have gone on to careers as coastal engineers. That means there’s a need for that kind of training. The students who come into our civil engineering program and decide to do research in coastal engineering wind up getting specialized jobs in the field they want and our society needs, which is a great thing.”

This article was first published on the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science website.

Bringing Queen’s engineering students together

The Innovation and Wellness Centre will be home to a range of engineering facilities, including labs, teaching studios, and a common room.

Engineering and Applied Science students will be spending a lot of time in the Innovation and Wellness Centre (IWC) when it opens next academic year.

The Innovation and Wellness Centre will feature a common lounge for undergraduate mechanical and materials engineering students, something that they have not had before. (Supplied Photo)
The Innovation and Wellness Centre will feature a common lounge for undergraduate mechanical and materials engineering students, something that they have not had before. (Supplied Photo)

The new facility will bring together several mechanical and materials engineering program areas on campus into one new and modern space. It will also add new resources for undergraduate engineering students.

“This leading-edge facility will uniquely bring together innovative undergraduate teaching facilities, world-leading research facilities, and innovation programming in one space,” says Kevin Deluzio, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science. “New undergraduate teaching and design studios, interdisciplinary research clusters, and flexible innovation space within the IWC will bring together professors, undergraduate, and graduate students in a way that builds community and fosters new ideas.”

The engineering facilities will be located on the second and third floors of the IWC. The second floor will feature an interdisciplinary mechatronics laboratory where mechanical and electrical engineers will be able to work together, an undergraduate common room, a rapid prototyping lab, and three engineering teaching studios. Rather than individual seating, the studios emphasize collaboration by grouping students in tables of four to eight. Each studio will accommodate about 80 students, and the walls can be moved to create one large studio.

On the third floor, you will find the IWC’s research labs. The Beaty Water Research Centre will include four wet labs, where chemical and civil engineering students and faculty will handle hazardous materials and conduct research. The facility will bring together water researchers from across the university, supporting 40 graduate students and 12 faculty members.

The Beaty Water Research Centre will be located on the third floor, featuring labs and meeting space. (Supplied Photo)
The Beaty Water Research Centre will be located on the third floor, featuring labs and meeting space. (Supplied Photo)

The third floor will also include brand new labs dedicated to studying human-machine collaboration. A dozen faculty members will be based out of this space, along with up to 40 graduate students. The Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science is currently recruiting five new academics specializing in disciplines such as machine learning, data mining, and smart prosthetics, aligning with the Principal’s faculty renewal plans.  

What's in the IWC?
A holistic view of wellness
A home for innovation
● Learn more on the Innovation and Wellness Centre website

“This focus on human-machine collaboration will provide an opportunity for Queen’s Engineering and Applied Science to lead the country in this increasingly important field,” says Brian Surgenor, a professor in the Mechanical and Materials Engineering department who is helping to coordinate the design of the IWC’s engineering space. “Coupled with the renovated spaces for our undergraduate students, the IWC will provide a significant enhancement to the student experience and our Faculty’s research leadership.”

The creation of the IWC was made possible through $55 million in philanthropic support, with a significant portion donated by Queen’s engineering alumni. In addition, the federal and Ontario governments contributed a combined total of nearly $22 million to this facility.

To learn more about the Innovation and Wellness Centre, visit the centre’s website. The centre is scheduled to open in Fall 2018.

Queen’s Engineering recognized for Indigenous outreach

The Queen’s Engineering Outreach office has received a national award for their efforts to engage with Indigenous youth.

A program which has brought class and community workshops, family events, clubs, and camp opportunities to tens of thousands of Indigenous youth across Canada is being recognized with a national education award.

The Queen’s Engineering Outreach team from the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science received the Actua Experience Award – Indigenous Youth in STEM. The award was presented at Actua’s annual awards night in Ottawa Thursday evening. The Canadian charity focuses on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education among youth.

  • Quinte Mohawk School students program code into tablets, which control these robots as part of an after-school robotics club called Codemakers. (Supplied Photo)
    Quinte Mohawk School students program code into tablets, which control these robots as part of an after-school robotics club called Codemakers. (Supplied Photo)
  • EngWAY is a week-long program operated by the Aboriginal Access to Education group, and is run on the Queen's campus. (Supplied Photo)
    EngWAY is another program operated by the Aboriginal Access to Education group, and is run on the Queen's campus. (Supplied Photo)EngWAY is a week-long program operated by the Aboriginal Access to Education group, and is run on the Queen's campus. (Supplied Photo)
  • Through EngWAY, Indigenous youth in grades 7 and 8 come to live in residence and take engineering design courses related to Indigenous community issues. (Supplied Photo)
    Through EngWAY, Indigenous youth in grades 7 and 8 come to live in residence and take engineering design courses related to Indigenous community issues. (Supplied Photo)
  • The Queen's Engineering Outreach Team accepts their Actua Award. (Photo by Martin Lipman)
    The Queen's Engineering Outreach Team accepts their Actua Award. (Photo by Martin Lipman)

Engineering Outreach runs multiple programs designed to engage Indigenous youth through Aboriginal Access to Engineering (AAE), which was the primary focus of the award. Workshops in partner First Nation grade schools involve hands-on engineering design projects that complement the Ontario science curriculum, integrate robotics in math and language classes, and explore culturally-linked science topics, as examples.

On campus, AAE has hosted Engineering Week for Aboriginal Youth (EngWAY) since 2012. During EngWAY, Indigenous youth in middle school come to stay on campus and take engineering design courses related to Indigenous community issues. AAE also provides bursaries to the Queen’s Summer Engineering Academy for Indigenous high school students, and works in partnership with the student-directed Science Quest program to bring local Indigenous youth to their day camps. In addition, AAE produces a series of comic books about engineering disciplines, featuring Queen's students and graduates, with curriculum-linked plans to help teachers across Canada use them in class.

Outreach, combined with an Indigenous student success program within the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, has resulted in a significant increase of Indigenous students enrolling in Engineering programs at Queen's - from four self-identified students in 2011 to 37 students this academic year.

“Over the past five years, we have engaged more than 20,000 Indigenous youth, and we continue to broaden our outreach to Indigenous communities right across Canada,” says Melanie Howard, Director of Outreach and Aboriginal Access with the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science. “Through our unique model, we partner with teachers and schools to deliver tailored content which matches with math and science curriculum, while paying attention to Indigenous contributions and cultural linkages whenever possible.”

Actua is a network with 35 post-secondary members, including Queen’s. In granting an award to the Queen’s Engineering Outreach team, the selection committee was impressed by their dedication to the key components in Actua's Indigenous STEM outreach goals. In particular, Aboriginal Access to Engineering’s focus on long-term community engagement and high-quality content tied to Indigenous worldviews and STEM delivered by Indigenous instructors and role models were particularly noted.

“Congratulations to the Queen’s Engineering Outreach team on all their efforts, which have culminated in this meaningful award,” says Kevin Deluzio, Dean, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science. “This unique program, which is predominantly run by Indigenous professionals employed by Queen's, has successfully encouraged many Indigenous youth to stay in school and pursue post-secondary studies in the STEM fields. Thank you to Actua for this recognition of our important efforts to diversify the STEM field.”

To learn more about the Aboriginal Access to Engineering program, visit www.aboriginalaccess.ca

Queen’s supported startup goes international

Laser Depth Dynamics, founded by Paul Webster (Sc'06, PhD'13) and Roger Bowes (Sc’92) in 2012, has been acquired by a leading developer of high-performance fibre lasers and amplifiers.

Welding is an important manufacturing process across many sectors of today’s global economy – from automotive, to aerospace, medical, and consumer goods. When working on products like cars or pacemakers, where lives could be on the line, it’s important that every component is built as intended. This can be a challenge when spending an extra second per part makes a difference to the bottom line.

The Laser Depth Dynamics team, including chief technical officer and co-founder Paul Webster (Sc'06, PhD'13) (third from the left in the front row).
The Laser Depth Dynamics team, including chief technical officer and co-founder Paul Webster (Sc'06, PhD'13) (third from the left in the front row). (University Communications)

Enter Paul Webster (Sc'06, PhD'13) and Roger Bowes (Sc’92). In 2012, the pair worked with Queen’s to found Laser Depth Dynamics (LDD) and commercialize a technology Dr. Webster co-developed with associate professor James Fraser, who teaches physics. The technology, called inline coherent imaging (ICI), allows for direct measurement of weld penetration depth for laser welding. This is done using a near-infrared measurement beam to ensure high quality in real-time.

“The story of our company is one of bringing the right elements together to create success,” says Dr. Webster, LDD’s chief technology officer and co-founder. “We combined the support of a leading university with strong industry connections and the right intellectual property policies and technology transfer capabilities to create an impactful product which reduces waste for companies and improves product quality for consumers.”

Recently, the Kingston-based company was purchased by IPG Photonics Corporation, the world leader in high-performance fibre lasers and amplifiers. The company aims to incorporate LDD’s technology into its laser welding solutions to drive adoption of this advanced technology throughout manufacturing of metal parts. Becoming part of a bigger, international organization will mean even more global exposure for LDD’s products.

“LDD’s weld monitoring systems and accessories significantly enhance IPG’s portfolio of industry-leading beam delivery products and laser welding solutions,” said Felix Stukalin, IPG’s senior vice president of North American operations. “LDD’s ability to monitor weld quality in real time and ensure process consistency is increasingly important within automated production environments.”

Laser Depth Dynamics was initially formed with support from Dr. Webster’s thesis supervisor, Dr. Fraser; the Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy; and PARTEQ Innovations, the university’s technology transfer organization that is now part of the Queen’s Office of Partnerships and Innovation. IPG Photonics was also involved from the early days, supplying equipment for the research and in helping LDD find early market potential.

John Fisher, Interim Vice-Principal (Research) says success stories like Laser Depth Dynamics demonstrate the value of the research that is conducted at Queen’s.

“This is an example of a research idea, identified and advanced by a student and professor, funded by research grants, and, with support from the university’s technology transfer team, was patented, spun-off as a business, and was successfully commercialized,” says Dr. Fisher. “This story showcases the innovation ecosystem at work here at Queen’s, the important role our Office of Partnerships and Innovation plays in fostering economic growth, and how critical the support of the Ontario government is for our innovation programs. We congratulate the Laser Depth Dynamics team on this exciting news as they become part of a global leader in its field.”

With the purchase, Laser Depth Dynamics will become IPG Photonics (Canada), and will remain in its existing Kingston office location on Railway Street. About half of its employees are Queen’s graduates, and Dr. Webster suggests they may add more Queen’s talent in the future.

IPG Photonics is a global company and the leading developer and manufacturer of high-performance fiber lasers and amplifiers for diverse applications in numerous markets. To learn more about IPG’s purchase of LDD, visit www.ipgphotonics.com

Karen Rudie named IEEE fellow

Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the School of Computing recognized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Karen Rudie, a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and cross-appointed to the School of Computing at Queen's, has been named as a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for her “contributions to the supervisory control theory of discrete event systems.”

Karen Rudie
Karen Rudie, a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and cross-appointed to the School of Computing, has been named a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). (University Communications)

As a result, Dr. Rudie joins a very small group of women to receive the honour. As of 2017, there were fewer than 400 women listed among some 10,000 IEEE fellows worldwide. 

“I’m a member of the IEEE Control Systems Society,” says Dr. Rudie. “There are only 26 IEEE Control Systems Society fellows in the world who are women and I’m the only one from Canada.”

New fellows are nominated by their professional peers. IEEE fellowship signifies collegial approval and validation of a researcher’s complete body of work.

“Professor Rudie is the world’s authority on decentralized control of discrete-event systems," writes IEEE Control Systems Society President Edwin Chong. “The IEEE Control Systems Society is proud of her contributions and happily celebrates her elevation to the rank of IEEE fellow. The number of IEEE members being elevated to the rank of fellow is fewer than one in a thousand.”

Dr. Rudie will be recognized at an awards ceremony in Miami in December.

The IEEE is a professional association for advancing technology for humanity. Through its 400,000-plus members in 160 countries, the association is an authority on a wide variety of areas including aerospace systems, computers and telecommunications, biomedical engineering, electric power, and consumer electronics.

Dedicated to the advancement of technology, the IEEE publishes about 30 per cent of the world’s literature in the electrical and electronics engineering and computer science fields, and has developed more than 1,300 active industry standards.

Innovation and Wellness Centre website launched

As construction continues on the IWC, stay up to date and learn more about the project through this new website.

A website has been launched to provide updates and information about the Innovation and Wellness Centre project. 

The website, queensu.ca/connect/innovationandwellness, features background information on the project, renderings and photos, and all news stories about the IWC. The site will be used to support the communications efforts leading up to the centre's Fall 2018 opening.

The Innovation and Wellness Centre will be a place where every aspect of campus life intersects. It will be a place where students from all programs come to access wellness services and learn about entrepreneurship supports on campus, and it will also be a place that supports leading-edge engineering education and research.

IWC construction site to be closed in

Keeping the snow out means more work can be done on the inside of the Innovation and Wellness Centre building.

While the Queen’s community gets into the holiday spirit by hanging festive decorations, the Innovation and Wellness Centre (IWC) construction crews are getting ready to hang the last panes of glass on the north side of the building.

Once the glass is in place the entire building will be closed in, keeping the snow out and allowing contractors to complete more interior work.

The Innovation and Wellness Centre at night. (Supplied Photo)
The snow is flying, and so are the glass panels as they are expertly hoisted into place by construction crews working on the IWC. (Supplied Photo)

“With the recent work completed on the roof and exterior of the IWC, we are on track to keep our New Years’ resolution of having the building enclosed by the end of 2017,” says Bob Polegato, Project Manager with Physical Plant Services. “While the Queen’s community is tucking into holiday dinners and unwrapping presents, our crews will be unboxing supplies to continue the work indoors from Dec 27 to 29.”

Once the site is weathertight, it will be heated to help construction move to the next phase. Some exterior sections, like the north staircase, won’t be completed until spring, however.

The IWC is scheduled to open Fall 2018. The creation of the IWC was made possible through $55 million in philanthropic support. In addition, the federal and Ontario governments contributed a combined total of nearly $22 million.

Alumnus returns to space with a scientific mission

Andrew Feustel (PhD’95, DSc'16) is returning to space in March, where he will stay aboard the International Space Station and support important research.

Going to space never gets old for Andrew Feustel (PhD’95, DSc'16).

Astronaut Andrew Feustel (PhD’95, DSc'16), will be returning to space as flight engineer for Expedition 55 and commander for Expedition 56. (Supplied Photo)

The astronaut and Queen’s grad is set to make his third trip into orbit this spring. Dr. Feustel will be making the trip with a fellow National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut and a Russian cosmonaut in a rocket that will launch from Kazakhstan in March.

“This trip will be quite a treat because it will allow me, for the first time, to live in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS),” says Dr. Feustel.

Dr. Feustel will be the flight engineer for Expedition 55 and commander for Expedition 56. As flight engineer, he will serve as co-pilot to Oleg Artemtyev on the Russian-made Soyuz spacecraft.

“I have been working a lot with Oleg, as space flight is complex and requires a lot of coordination,” he says. “There is a language barrier, but we have reached a balance where we understand enough of what is desired and required to keep the spacecraft moving in simulations.”

During his time aboard the ISS, Dr. Feustel will be the ‘hands, eyes, and ears’ of Earth-based scientists, collecting data on various experiments being completed on the station. One project will look at osteoporosis and muscle wasting in space – a pertinent topic for astronauts and those who hope to live in space someday. He says he will learn more about the research to be conducted during his trip once he reaches the station.

Dr. Feustel had considered a career in space for many years, but it was while he was in Kingston that the interest started to turn into action. While watching television during his doctoral studies, Dr. Feustel caught a compelling interview with the latest batch of Canadian astronauts including Julie Payette (DSc’99) and Chris Hadfield.

Though Dr. Feustel’s next job didn’t take him to infinity and beyond, it did bring him closer to NASA headquarters. He and his family relocated to Houston, Texas in 1997 and he worked for Exxon Mobil, putting his seismology experience to work in the company’s drilling operations.

“Queen’s capped off my education and work experiences in a way that was unique to Queen’s,” he says. “When I was at Queen’s, I worked as a geophysicist in the engineering seismology lab which was responsible for installing seismic monitoring systems in Canada. It was a unique lab in Canada, almost in the world…and that lab spun off into a company still in Kingston today. It afforded me a great education and what I did there prepared me for my eventual work with Exxon.”

In 1999, Dr. Feustel applied to become an astronaut and, in 2000, he got word from NASA that he had been accepted. While it may not seem like a traditional career path, Dr. Feustel and fellow Expedition 55/56 astronaut Richard Arnold noted that the space agency looks for individuals who are creative, well-rounded, scientifically-minded, and good at problem-solving.

“I didn't specifically plan my early work and learning experiences in order to become an astronaut...I found the things I liked and was good at, and those are the things I pursued,” Dr. Feustel says.

In the 17 years since joining NASA, Dr. Feustel has gained his Canadian citizenship – making him the next Canadian headed to space. While he won’t reveal if his guitar-playing skills will make an appearance on the ISS, like his astronaut colleague Chris Hadfield, Dr. Feustel says he has a few secrets he plans to unveil during his time on the station.

Dr. Feustel has returned to Queen’s campus as a NASA astronaut several times – in 2015, he returned to receive the Queen’s University Alumni Association’s Alumni Achievement Award and last spring to receive an honorary doctorate.

To follow Dr. Feustel's journey, find him on Twitter at @Astro_Feustel, or on Instagram at astro_feustel.

For updates on Expedition 55-56, or other ongoing expeditions, visit NASA’s website.

Go with the flow (or against it)

Queen's researchers use magnetic fields to control bacteria with the potential to deliver drug treatments

Queen’s University researchers are using magnetic fields to influence a specific type of bacteria to swim against strong currents, opening up the potential of using the microscopic organisms for drug delivery in environments with complex microflows – like the human bloodstream.

Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering Carlos Escobedo and PhD candidate Saeed Rismani Yazdi analyzing MTB behaviour in the laboratory.
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering Carlos Escobedo and PhD candidate Saeed Rismani Yazdi in the laboratory.

Led by Carlos Escobedo (Chemical Engineering) and PhD candidate Saeed Rismani Yazdi (Chemical Engineering), the research focused on studying and manipulating the mobility of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) – tiny organisms that contain nanocrystals sensitive to magnetic fields. Their findings were recently published in nano- and micro-science journal Small.

“MTB have tiny (nanoscopic) organelles called magnetosomes, which act like a compass needle that helps them navigate to nutrient-rich locations in aquatic environments – their natural habitats – by using the Earth’s magnetic field,” says Dr. Escobedo. “In nature, MTB play a key role in Earth’s cycles by influencing marine biogeochemistry via transporting minerals and organic matters as nutrients.”

After studying how MTB respond to magnetic fields and currents similar to those found in their natural habitats, the team introduced stronger currents and magnetic fields to see if the bacteria could still navigate successfully.

“When we increased the rate of flow and the strength of the magnetic field, we were astounded by the MTB’s ability to swim strongly and concertedly against the current,” says Mr. Rismani Yazdi. “They were even able to swim across a strong current with ease when we moved the magnet perpendicular to the flow.”

Microscope slide with a channel to circulate flow
This microscope slide features a small channel through which Queen's researchers simulated the flow of a human bloodstream.

The team’s success in directing MTB through a complex and fast-moving environment could be a significant step toward using the bacteria to transport pharmaceuticals through the human bloodstream to treat tumours directly.

“Next, we plan to bind therapeutic drugs to the bacterial bodies for transport,” says Dr. Escobedo.

To do so, the team is collaborating with the group led by Peter Davies (Biochemisty), Canada Research Chair in Protein Engineering, who are figuring out how to adhere existing cancer therapeutic drugs to the bacteria, as well as how to have them release the drugs once they reach a chosen destination.

The team has also teamed up with Dr. Madhuri Koti of the Queen’s Cancer Research Institute and plan to refine their ability to direct the MTB toward tumours with a high degree of accuracy. Together, the team will use magnetic fields to guide the bacteria from one end of a microchannel on a tiny microscope slide to samples of biopsied cancer tissue at the other end.

Dr. Escobedo hopes that their multi-disciplinary approach to this research will help unlock MTB’s potential to be a biological, effective, and formidable drug-delivery method.

“We’ve shown that the bacteria’s natural properties can be exploited to guide them in complex and strong flow conditions, much more challenging than those found in nature, which opens up opportunities not only in the drug-delivery field, but in other biomedical applications as well,” concluded Mr. Rismani Yazdi.

Engineering students, faculty, and staff mark École Polytechnique shooting anniversary

Students, faculty, and staff gathered to remember the 1989 school shooting, which primarily targeted female students in engineering programs.

If the victims of the École Polytechnique massacre were alive today, they would be old enough to have children graduating university.

Despite the time that has passed, Engineering student Emily Nunn (Sci’18) says remembering the event and what it represented continues to be important.

“The women killed, if they were still alive today, would have careers and families of their own, but tragically those lives were taken from this Earth before their time for no reason other than they were women,” says Ms. Nunn, one of the organizers of the memorial ceremony at Queen’s. “The event personally means to me that we remember this happened, and fight to make sure it doesn't again.”

  • Students, faculty, and staff gathered in Beamish-Munro Hall for the memorial event. (Supplied Photo)
    Students, faculty, and staff gathered in Beamish-Munro Hall for the memorial event. (Supplied Photo)
  • The EngChoir sings as part of ceremonies remembering each of the 14 women killed on Dec. 6, 1989. (Supplied Photo)
    The EngChoir sings as part of ceremonies remembering each of the 14 women killed on Dec. 6, 1989. (Supplied Photo)
  • Biographies of each victim were read, and a candle was lit for each of the victims during the somber ceremony. (Supplied Photo)
    Biographies of each victim were read, and a candle was lit for each of the victims during the somber ceremony. (Supplied Photo)
  • Roses have been a symbol of the anniversary, and one was laid for each woman killed in the shooting. (Supplied Photo)
    Roses have been a symbol of the anniversary, and one was laid for each woman killed in the shooting. (Supplied Photo)

Dozens of students, faculty, and staff gathered in Beamish-Munro Hall on Wednesday to mark 28 years since the massacre, on a day that was declared Canada’s National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women in the wake of the shooting. The Engineering Society at Queen’s University annually hosts a memorial event marking the date. Participants hold red roses, light white candles, and read brief biographies of each of the women killed on Dec. 6, 1989.

“As a woman in engineering, I am lucky that I don't feel out of place. I am lucky that I personally have not been a victim of violence, and no one has doubted my ability to be an engineer just because of my gender,” Ms. Nunn adds. “In order to ensure that nothing like this happens again, we must first remember and mourn the loss of those 14 beautiful lives. Then we must fight for change and equality for all in the future.”

To learn more about Canada’s National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women, visit the Department of the Status of Women’s website.

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