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Queen's University

Supporting Materials for Lectures

Lecture 1: The Eleven Basic Roles in Production


  1. Producer (choregus) :
    The playwright made application to the archon eponymos for a chorus; plays were chosen one month after the festival in order to give eleven months for rehearsal. Discuss the liturgy such as choregeia (producing a tragedy/comedy), trierarchia (outfitting a trireme), etc. and the antidosis to which one charged with a liturgy could challenge any other citizen. In times of financial duress, co-producers, or sungchoregoi collaborated to foot the bill. Discuss also the publication of a written text after the performance (e.g. Ar. Clouds); the law of Lycurgus (330 B.C.) required an official text of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides to be kept in the Athenian archives and actors could not depart from the wording of these texts. Discuss the proagon and its relevance to understanding the plays.


    • E. Hiller, "Die Athenischen Odeen und der Proagon," Hermes 7 (1873) 393-407.
    • W. A. Goligher, "Studies in Attic Law II: The Antidosis," Hermathena 14 (1907) 481-515.
    • W. M. Calder III, "The Single-Performance Fallacy," Educational Theatre Journal 10 (1958) 237-9.
    • A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens (Oxford, 1968) vol. 2 pp. 236-8.
    • D. M. MacDowell, The Law in Classical Athens (London 1978) 162-4.
    • M. R. Christ, "Liturgy Avoidance and Antidosis in Classical Athens," Transactions of the American Philological Association 120 (1990) 147-69.
    • A. J. Podlecki, "Could Women Attend the Theatre in Ancient Athens?: A Collection of Testimonia," Ancient World 21 (1990) 27-43.
    • J. Henderson, "Women and Athenian Dramatic Festivals," Transactions of the Amerian Philological Association 121 (1991) 133-47.


  2. Director/rice (didascalus) :
    Discuss (i) the architectural form of the ancient theatre: the scene building, machinery such as the crane (geranos, mechane) and the ekkuklema, (you might consider the effect caused by natural sunlight rather than by spot-lights, and the effect of the enormous spectator area on one's appreciation of events in the orchestra), (ii) staging, scenery, stage-properties (props) and production-techniques, (iii) masks and costume, (iv) dance and gesture, (v) music, (vi) the use of a chorus, (vii) the use of actors to play multiple roles, of male actors to play female roles, messengers, audience-address, and entrances and exits and (viii) aspects of production. Some modern production-methods might be considered, e.g. Peter Arnott's marionette theatre production.


    • T. B. L. Webster, Greek Theatre Production (London 1956).
    • P. Arnott, Greek Scenic Conventions of the Fifth Century B. C. (Oxford 1962).
    • N. C. Hourmouziades, Production and Imagination in Euripides (Athens 1965).
    • A. Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens 2nd ed. (Oxford 1968).
    • N. G. L. Hammond, "The Conditions of Dramatic Production to the Death of Aeschylus," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 13 (1972) 387-450.
    • O. Taplin, The Stage-Craft of Aeschylus (Oxford 1977).
    • P. Burian, "The Play before the Prologue: Initial Tableaux on the Greek Stage," in J. H. D'Arms and J. W. Eadie edd., Ancient and Modern (Ann Arbor 1977) 79-94.
    • D. Seale, Vision and Stage-Craft in Euripides (London and Canberra 1982).
    • M. R. Halleran, Stagecraft in Euripides (London and Sydney 1985).
    • G. Ley and M. Evans, "The Orchestra as Acting Area in Greek Tragedy," Ramus 14 (1985) 75-84.
    • R. B. Parker, "The National Theatre's Oresteia, 1981-82," in M. Cropp et al. edd., Greek Tragedy and its Legacy = Festschrift D. J. Conacher (Calgary 1986) 337-57.
    • K. B. Frost, Exits and Entrances in Menander (Oxford 1988).


  3. Stage-Manager (architecton or theatrones) and Prompter (hypoboleus) :
    The stage-manager was responsible for leasing the theatre from the state and selling tickets. He got to work the mechane and ekkuklema.

    Pericles (in Plutarch Moralia 813F) advised himself to "imitate the actors, who, while putting into their performances their own passion, character and reputation, yet listen to the prompter and do not go beyond the degree of liberty in rhythms and metres provided by those in authority over them." Could the property-altar on stage double as a prompter's box?

    • A. L. H. Robkin, "That Magnificent Flying Machine: On the Nature of the 'Mechane' of the Theatre of Dionysus at Athens," Archaeological News 8 (1978) 1-6.
    • D. J. Mastronarde, "Actors on High: The Skene Roof, the Crane and the Gods in Attic Drama," Classical Antiquity 9 (1990) 247-94.


  4. Chorus Leader (choryphaeus):
    1. Dance and Gesture:
      Discuss the number of members of the chorus (15 in tragedy, 24 in comedy, 12 in satyr-play and 50 in dithyramb). Discuss the use of gesture in the dance; on the exaggerated nature of gesture on "the small screen" (about the size of a television set in contrast to movie-theatre screens), consider the marionette theatre of the later Peter Arnott. Stereotypic gestures were different in Greece from what they are among us: nodding up means "no" while nodding down means "yes", scratching the face was a sign of grief as was raising one arm above the head. Spontaneous dancing, like St. Vitus' dance, was associated with the worship of Dionysus; see E. R. Dodds, Euripides: Bacchae, 2nd ed. (Oxford 1960) xiv-xvi. Cf. Archilochus fr. 120 West, "I know how to lead the fair song of the dithyramb for Lord Dionysus when thunder-blasted in my wits by wine". Each dramatic genre had its own particular dance: emmeleia in tragedy, kordax in comedy and the sikinnis in satyr-play. Comment on the circular motion of the chorus moving in deasil and withershins motion. Does this have anything to do with the circumpolar motion of the stars (east to west in the strophe) and of the planets (west to east in the antistrophe)?


      • W. Ridgeway, Dramas and Dramatic Dances (Cambridge 1915).
      • L. Séchan, La danse grecque antique (Paris 1930).
      • C. Sachs, World History of the Dance (New York 1937).
      • *H. D. F. Kitto, "The Dance in Greek Tragedy," Journal of Hellenic Studies 75 (1955) 36-41.
      • *L. B. Lawler, The Dance of the Ancient Greek Theater (Iowa City 1964).
      • G. Prudhommeau, La danse grecque antique (Paris 1965).
      • E. K. Borthwick, "The Dances of Philocleon and the Sons of Carcinus in Aristophanes' Wasps," Classical Quarterly 18 (1968) 44-51.
      • J. W. Fitton, "Greek Dance," Classical Quarterly 23 (1973) 254-74.
      • L. Ellfeldt, Dance: From Magic to Art (Dubuque, Iowa 1976).
      • W. T. MacCary, "Philokleon Ithyphallos: Dance, Costume and Character in the Wasps," Transactions of the American Philological Association 109 (1979) 137-47.
      • *B. Gredley, "Dance and Greek Drama," 25-30 in Drama, Dance and Music = Themes in Drama 3 (Cambridge 1981).
      • M. MacDonald, Ancient Sun, Modern Light (New York 1992) 93.


    2. Music:
      Music was crucial to tragedy (Modern Greek tragoudhi = "song"). Although it is not now preserved with the exception of a few lines (338-44) from Euripides' Orestes (there is a good reproduction in Feaver) the musical accompaniment of Greek drama was very important. We need only consider that Greek drama inspired modern opera to see that this is so. From the evidence available, consider the nature of the musical component in ancient drama. Discuss singing, instrumental accompaniment by the kithara, lyre or "guitar" and aulos, flute or more precisely oboe, and lack of harmony and counterpoint. Modern opera knows of something between speech and songs - recitative, Sprachestimme; is there an ancient equivalent? One can listen to reconstructions of ancient Greek music on Gregorio Paniagua and Atrium Musicae de Madrid, Musique de la grèce antique (Harmonia Mundi 1978).


      • J. F. Mountford, "Greek Music in the Papyri and Inscriptions," in J. U. Powell and E. A. Barber edd., New Chapters in the History of Greek Literature, 2nd ed (Oxford 1924) 146-83.
      • R. P. Winnington-Ingram, "Fragments of Unknown Greek Tragic Texts with Musical Notation: II The Music," Symbolae Osloenses 31 (1955) 29-87.
      • R. P. Winnington-Ingram, "Ancient Greek Music," Lustrum 3 (1958) 5-57.
      • D. Feaver, "The Musical Setting of Euripides' Orestes," American Journal of Philology 81 (1960) 1-15.
      • H. A. Haldane, "Musical Themes and Imagery in Aeschylus," Journal of Hellenic Studies 85 (1965) 33-41.
      • J. D. Solomon, "A Diphonal Diphthong in the Orestes Papyrus," American Journal of Philology 97 (1976) 172-3.
      • J. D. Solomon, "Orestes 344-345, Collometry and Music," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 18 (1977) 71-83.
      • T. J. Fleming, "The Musical Nomos in Aeschylus' Oresteia," Classical Journal 72 (1977) 222-3.
      • S. Michaelides, The Music of Ancient Greece: An Encyclopaedia (London 1978).
      • E. A. Moutsopoulos, "Musique grecque ou barbare (Eurip. Iph. Taur. 279-184)?," Eirene 21 (1984) 25-31.
      • W. C. Scott, Musical Design in Aeschylean Theatre (Hanover and London 1984).
      • C. W. Willink, Euripides: Orestes (Oxford 1986) liv-lv.
      • M. Mass and J. M. Snyder, Stringed Instruments of Ancient Greece (New Haven 1989).
      • M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992).


  5. Lead Actor (protagonistes)
  6. Supporting Actor (deuteragonistes)
  7. Third Actor (tritagonistes):
    1. Actors:
      Discuss the terms hypocrites, histrio, the number of actors at various times (early tragedies require 2, later ones 3, comedy 4), the "stage directions" incorporated into the text of the plays and the set-speech or rhesis.

      The playwright Thespis, traditional inventor of the actor ("thespian"; literally, 'inspired speaker'), acted in his own plays. By 499 B.C. a prize for acting was introduced in the festival. By this point, presumably, the age of the actor-playwright was over. Consider the anecdotes concerning famous actors: e.g. Hegelochus' mispronunciation at Eur. Orestes 279 in which instead of saying "I see a calm coming over the waves" he said, "I see a weasel coming over the waves" (Ar. Frogs 303-4) [see S. G. Daitz, "Euripides Orestes 279 galen' > galen or How a Blue Sky Turned into a Pussycat," Classical Quarterly 33 (1983) 294-5]; Polus playing the role of the paedagogus in Soph. Electra holding an urn (cf. line 758) containing the ashes of his dead son (Aulus Gellius Noctes Atticae 6.4); and Callipides as a laughing-stock (Ar. Nub. 64, see D. M. Lewis "Aristophanes Clouds 64," Classical Review 20 [1970] 288-9). Other famous actors include Theodorus, who refused to allow anyone to come on stage before him (Aristotle Politics 1336b27), Thettalus, Neoptolemus, Athenodorus and Molon (Euripides' leading actor according to Demosthenes 19.246). As actors grew in prominence, they developed the habit of interpolating lines into the texts of the plays to show off their skills to best advantage.

      Discuss soliloquies, asides (e.g. Teiresias in Soph. OT), and eavesdropping (Phaedra in Eur. Hipp., Orestes in Eur. El. 111, Polonius in Shakespeare Hamlet; J. N. Hough, "The Development of Plautus' Art," Classical Philology 30 [1935] 43-57 and Transactions of the American Philological Association 70 [1939] 231-4). Discuss the interaction of actor and audience in comedy in which actors throw nuts and figs at the audience (Ar. Vesp. 58f, Plut. 797ff, Pax 960-6); Socrates stood up so that the audience could compare his face with the comic mask in Ar. Nub. (Aelian VH 2.12) and the audience called for a repetition of the first lines of Eur. Or. (Cicero Tusc. 4.63).

      Note: Soph. OC can only be played by three actors if different actors take the title-role at different points in the play.


      • J. B. O'Connor, Chapters in the History of Actors and Acting in Ancient Greece (Princeton 1908).
      • D. Page, Actors' Interpolations in Greek Tragedy (Oxford 1934).
      • R. C. Flickinger, "Off-Stage Speech in Greek Tragedy," Classical Journal 34 (1939) 355-60.
      • G. F. Else, "The Case of the Third Actor," Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 76 (1945) 1-10.
      • F. L. Shisler, "The Use of Stage Business to Portray Emotion in Greek Tragedy," American Journal of Philology 56 (1945) 377-97.
      • M. Bieber, "The Entrances and Exits of Actors and Chorus in Greek Plays, " Amerian Journal of Archaeology 58 (1954) 277-81.
      • H. Koller, "Hypokrisis und Hypokrites," Museum Helveticum 14 (1957) 100-107.
      • G. Else, "Hypokrites," Wiener Studien 72 (1959) 75-105.
      • B. M. W. Knox, "Aeschylus and the Third Actor," American Journal of Philology (1972) reprinted in Word and Action: Essays on the Ancient Theater (Baltimore 1979).
      • L. Bain, "Audience Address in Greek Tragedy," Classical Quarterly 25 (1975) 13-25.
      • F. H. Sandbach, "Menander and the Three-Actor Rule," in Hommages à Claire Préaux, edd. J. Binger et al. (Brussels 1975) 197-204.
      • P. Ghiron-Bistagne, Recherches sur les acteurs dans la grèce antique (Paris 1976).
      • D. Bain, Actors and Audience: A Study of Asides and Related Conventions in Greek Drama (Oxford 1977).
      • T. V. Buttrey, "Hypo- in Aristophanes and Hypokrites," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 18 (1977) 5-24.
      • O. Taplin, "Did Greek Dramatists Write Stage Directions?" Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 23 (1977) 121-32.
      • R. Hamilton, "Announced Entrances in Greek Tragedy," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 82 (1978) 63-82.
      • D. J. Mastronarde, Contact and Discontinuity = University of California Publications in Classical Antiquity 21 (Berkeley 1979).
      • G. Chancellor, "Implicit Stage Directions in Ancient Greek Drama: Critical Assumptions and the Reading Public," Arethusa 12 (1979) 133-52.
      • D. Bain, Masters, Servants and Orders in Greek Tragedy (Manchester 1981).
      • W. G. Arnott, "Off-Stage Cries and Choral Presence: Some Challenges to Theatrical Convention in Euripides," Antichthon 16 (1982) 35-43.
      • B. Gredley, "Greek Tragedy and the ‘Discovery' of the Third Actor," 1-14 in J. Redmond ed., Drama and the Actor = Themes in Drama 6 (Cambridge 1984).
      • D. Raeburn, "Greek Tragedy and the Actor Today," 15-38 in ibid.
      • D. F. Sutton, "The Theatrical Families of Athens," American Journal of Philology 108 (1987) 9-26.
      • R. Hamilton, "Cries within the Tragic Skene," American Journal of Philology 108 (1987) 585-99.


    2. The Agon:
      Sometimes in tragedy and always in old comedy the first and second actors face off against one another in a formal, rhetorical debate or agon in which they give speeches of nearly equal length with the chorus serving as moderator.


      • J. Duchemin, L'Agon dans la tragédie grecque (Paris 1945).
      • C. Collard, "Formal Debates in Euripides' Drama," Greece and Rome 22 (1975) 58-71.
      • M. A. Lloyd, The Agon in Euripides (Oxford 1992).


    3. Stichomythia:
      When two or more characters speak in dialogue, they will usually speak in alternating single lines of verse (stichomythia) or couplets (distichomythia). When this pattern is interrupted, it is called antilabe.


      • J. L. Hancock, Studies in Stichomythia (Chicago 1917).
      • B. Seidensticker, "Die Stichomythie," in W. Jens ed., Die Bauformen der griechischen Tragödie (Munich 1971) 183-200.
      • S. Ireland, "Stichomythia in Aeschylus," Hermes 102 (1974) 509-24.
      • C. Collard, "On Sichomythia," Liverpool Classical Monthly 5 (1980) 77-85.
      • A. S. McDevitt, "Antilabe in Sophoclean Kommoi," Rheinisches Museum 124 (1981) 19-28.


    4. Messengers:
      The original function of the actor as messenger, who must relate murders and suicides offstage (see Horace Ars P. 188). The messenger (angelos, nuntius) remains a major role of the actor throughout the Classical period.


      • D. Bassi, "Il nunzio nella tragedia greca," Rivista di filologia classica 27 (1899) 50-89.
      • J. Fischl, De nuntiis tragicis, diss. Vienna 1910.
      • D. P. Stanley-Porter, Messenger-Scenes in Euripides, diss. London 1968.
      • J. M. Bremer, "Why Messenger Speeches?" 29-48 in J. M. Bremer et al. edd. Miscellanea tragica in honorem J. C. Kamerbeek (Amsterdam 1976).
      • A. Rijksbaron, "How Does a Messenger Begin his Speech?" ibid. 293-308.
      • I. de Jong, Narrative in Drama: The Euripidean Messenger-Speech = Mnemosyne Supplement 116 (Leiden 1991).


  8. Set Designer (scenographus):
    1. The Set:
      Discuss the significance of the opposite parodoi (e.g. left for city, right for country or sea-port (or vice versa), Pollux 4.126-7, Vitruvius 5.6.8). Was there a second stage-altar (bomos) to serve as a prop for altars and tombs, or did the real altar in the orchestra (thumele) serve this function (see J. P. Poe, "The Altar in the Fifth-Century Theatre," Classical Antiquity 8 [1989] 116-39)? Discuss "mirror scenes" or "visual rhymes" (e.g. Clytaemnestra leading Cassandra into the house in Aesch. Ag. = Orestes leading Clytaemnestra into the house in Cho.), getting the last word, the address to the retreating back motivation for entrances and exits, cancelled entries = initial tableaux, the opening and closing of skene-doors, the role of servants (mostly unnamed in the texts, but indicated occasionally in plural numbers of verbs and the like), etc. Comment on the importance of things NOT available to ancient set-designers such as curtains, blackouts, and spotlights. Mary Renault, The Mask of Apollo describes an ancient dramatic production.


      • T. B. L. Webster, "Staging and Scenery in the Ancient Greek Theatre," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 42 (1959-60) 493-504.


    2. Masks:
      Masks were part and parcel of the loss of identity implicit in the worship of Dionysus and their use helps to account for the prominence of disguise and recognition themes in Greek drama. The first masking involved dyeing the face purple; see Horace Ars poetica 276-7, Hesychius s.v. hiereus Dionusou, scholiast recentior ad Ar. Frogs 308a, scholiast ad Aristophanes Acharnians 499, and Sophron fr. 94 Kaibel.

      Discuss the theory found in Aulus Gellius Attic Nights 5.7 that masks (Latin personae) were used to amplify the voices that "sound through" (personant) them. You may want to consider the use of masks in contemporary Japanese No theatre.

      Discuss the use of masks in DECAPITATION-SCENES (according to Pseudo-Apollodorus Bibl. the heads of the Aegyptii were buried in different places from their bodies; is this relevant for Aesch. Danaid tetralogy?; Eur. Bacch. 1165ff; despite repeated hints [Aesch. Libation Bearers 396, 883-4, 1047, Eumenides 592] Orestes probably did not decapitate Clytaemnestra; see also P. D. Kovacs, "Where is Aegisthus' Head?," Classical Philology 82 [1987] 139-41).

      Discuss possible CHANGES OF MASK for a single character (e.g. in the blinding-scene in Soph. Oedipus the King 1185-1298; see W. M. Calder III, "The Blinding: Oedipus Tyrannus, 1271-4" American Journal of Philology 80 [1959] 301-5 at 301 n. 2; in Eur. Cyclops 663; see Seaford's note; and at Ar. Clouds 1170 to show Pheidippides' transformation into a sophist; see F. M. Cornford, The Origins of Attic Comedy (London 1913) 17. Sophocles' lost Thamyras allegedly used a single mask with one white and one black eye to represent both the sighted and the blind character; see A. C. Pearson, The Fragments of Sophocles 1 [Cambridge 1917] 177-8; and the Furies must become Eumenides in Aeschylus' play without benefit of a mask-change). Could a chorus remove their masks on stage as the satyrs did in Aesch. Isthmiastai, according to E. Fraenkel, seminar Proceedings of the British Academy 28 (1942) 245; R. G. Ussher, "The Other Aeschylus," Phoenix 31? Were masks sexually colour-coded: brown for males, white for females, bearded for old men, clean-shaven for young? Tyro's mask is black and blue after a beating in Soph. Tyro according to Pollux 4.141 = page 463 TrGF.

      Discuss the use of PORTRAIT-MASKS. On the portrait-mask of Socrates in Aristophanes Clouds see Aelian Varia Historia 2.13 and Dover's edition of the play, page xxxiii. How was the masking of the one-eyed Cyclops managed? (See Ussher on Eur. Cyclops 20-22). How does one show change of emotion while wearing a mask?


      • O. Hense, Die Modifizierung der Maske in der griechischen Tragödie (Freiburg 1902).
      • F. B. Jevons, "Masks and the Origin of Greek Drama," Folk Lore 27 (1916) 171-92.
      • J. Dickins, "The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia," Journal of Hellenic Studies Supplementary Paper 5 (1929).
      • C. Kerenyi, "Men and Masks," in Spiritual Disciplines ed. J. Campbell (New York 1960).
      • T. B. L. Webster, "The Poet and the Mask," in Classical Drama and Its Influence = Festschrift H. D. F. Kitto, ed. M. J. Anderson (New York 1965) 3-13.
      • A. Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens 2nd ed (Cambridge 1968) 190-6.
      • C. W. Dearden, "The Poet and the Mask Again," Phoenix 29 (1975) 75-82.
      • P. G. M. Brown, "Masks, Names and Characters in the New Comedy," Hermes 115 (1987) 181-202.
      • D. Wiles, The Masks of Menander (Cambridge 1991).


    3. Costumes:
      Discuss the double-costuming of disguised characters: Dionysus disguised as a man and Pentheus as a woman in Eur. Bacchae, Alcestis disguised as a foreigner in Eur. Alcestis, and Dionysus disguised as Heracles in Ar. Frogs. How were giants represented on stage: Cyclops, Prometheus? On the "puppet-theory" see M. Griffith, Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound (Cambridge 1983) 8 n. 25.

      Consider the following passages and the implications that they have for costumes: Aesch. Suppl. 73-4 (foreign complexion), Soph. Aj. 1168-81 (haircut), Eur. Hipp. 219-220 (Phaedra's hair), Bacch. 455-6 (beauty of Dionysus), Ismene's hat, Euripides' rags.

      All female roles were played by males; a result of this is that transvestism was a pervasive fact of the Greek theatre, sometimes as in Eur. Bacchae or Ar. Thesmophoriazusae entering also as a theme.


      • C. Gallini, "Il travestismo rituale di Penteo," Studi e materiali di storia delle religioni 34 (1963) 211-28.
      • R. Baker, Drag: A History of Female Impersonation on Stage (London 1976).
      • F. Muecke, "I Know You–by Your Rags–Costume and Disguise in Fifth-Century Drama," Antichthon 16 (1982) 17-34.
      • S.-E. Case, "Classic Drag: The Greek Creation of Female Parts," Theatre Journal 37 (1985) 317-28.
      • E. A. Schmoll, "The Wig of Pentheus," Liverpool Classical Monthly 12 (1987) 70-72.
      • J. E. Howard, "Crossdressing, the Theatre and Gender Struggle in Early Modern England," Shakespeare Quarterly 39 (1988) 418-40.
      • K. Bassi, "The Actor as Actress in Euripides' Alcestis," in J. Redmond ed., Women in Theatre (Cambridge 1989) 19-30.
      • L. Ferris, ed. Crossing the Stage (London and New York 1993)


  9. Chorus-Member (choreutes):
    Discuss the use of the first person singular; the use of speech and song; the activity or inactivity of the chorus while not speaking; half or divided choruses. The chorus in Aesch. Libation Bearers 730 and Eur. Ion actually changes the course of the play by telling their mistress that her husband has fathered an illegitimate child; more typically the chorus fails to intervene in the action (e.g. Aesch. Agam. 1346-71, Soph. Trach. 588-9). The chorus very rarely leaves the orchestra during the chorus of the play, an event called metastasis – e.g. Aesch. Eum. 231, Soph. Ajax 814-66 (in both of which there is a change of dramatic locale), Eur. Alc. 746-861, Hel. 385-515, [Eur.] Rhesus 654-75, Ar. Ec., 310-478 and possibly Pr. 283-397, on which see Griffith on Pr. 128-92, O. Taplin, The Stagecraft of Aeschylus (Oxford 1977) 256-62, and M. L. West, "The Prometheus Trilogy" Journal of Hellenic Studies (1979) 130-48, esp. 138-9 and Eur. Phaethon. In Eur. Hipp. Phaedra invites the chorus on stage to help her eavesdrop; they decline to do so. In such cases, it is necessary for the chorus to re-enter the orchestra by means of a song called an epiparodos (Pollux 4.108). A point to consider: the entire chorus of Aesch. Nurses of Dionysus was boiled. Consider the five-act division of later drama (see Horace Ars P. 189-90), the change of persona of a chorus that in Aesch. Eum. changes from Furies to Eumenides, that in Ar. Frogs from Frogs to initiates, and the decline of the chorus in the time of Menander. The chorus in Shakespeare's Henry V and Romeo and Juliet was a single person; the multiple-member chorus has occasionally be revived, e.g. by T.S. Eliot in Murder in the Cathedral.


    • E. Capps, "The Chorus in Later Greek Drama with Reference to the Stage Question," American Journal of Archaeology 11 (1895) 287-325.
    • J. Lammers, Die Doppel- und Halbchöre in der antiken Tragödie (Paderborn 1931).
    • W. Kranz, Stasimon (Berlin 1933).
    • W. J. Maidment, "The Later Comic Chorus," Classical Quarterly 29 (1935) 1-24.
    • H. Lloyd-Jones, "The ‘Supplices' of Aeschylus: the New Date and Old Problems," L'Antiquité classique 33 (1964) 365-74 = H. Hommel ed., Wege zu Aischylos = Wege der Forschung 87, (Darmstadt 1974) 101-24 = E. Segal ed., Oxford Readings in Greek Tragedy (Oxford 1983) 42-56 = Lloyd-Jones Greek Epic, Lyric and Tragedy (Oxford 1990) 262-77.
    • A. M. Dale, "The Chorus in the Action of Greek Tragedy," Classical Drama and Its Influence (1965) 17-27 = Collected Papers (Cambridge 1969) 210-20.
    • P. H. Vellacott, "The Chorus in Oedipus Tyrannus," Greece and Rome 14 (1967) 109-25.
    • A. S. McDevitt, "The Dramatic Integration of the Chorus in Oedipus Tyrannus," Classica et Mediaevalia 30 (1969) 78-101.
    • M. Kaimio, The Chorus of Greek Drama within the Light of the Person and Number Used (Helsinki 1970).
    • T. B. L. Webster, The Greek Chorus (London 1970).
    • B. M. Sifakis, Parabasis and Animal Choruses (London 1971).
    • R. G. G. Coleman, "The Role of the Chorus in Sophocles' Antigone," Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 18 (1972) 4-27.
    • D. J. Conacher, "Interaction between Chorus and Character in the Oresteia," American Journal of Philology 95 (1974) 323-43.
    • M. McCall, "The Secondary Chorus in Aeschylus, Supplices," California Studies in Classical Antiquity 9 (1976) 117-31.
    • R. W. B. Burton, The Chorus in Sophocles' Tragedies (Oxford 1980).
    • V. Bers, "The Perjured Chorus in Sophocles' Philoctetes," Hermes 109 (1981) 500-504.
    • W. M. Calder III, "The Size of Thespis' Chorus," American Journal of Philology 103 (1982) 319-20.
    • J. F. Davison, "The Circle and the Tragic Chorus," Greece and Rome 33 (1986) 38-46.
    • C. P. Gardiner, The Sophoclean Chorus (Iowa City 1987).


  10. Extra/Spear-Carrier (kophon prosopon):
    Although the number of actors was at various periods strictly limited, there was a potentially unlimited number of unspeaking roles.


    • D. P. Stanley-Porter, "Mute Actors in the Tragedies of Euripides," Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 20 (1983) 68-93.


  11. Priest of Dionysus:
    Who attended the theatre (Citizens? Males? Everybody?). Who were the judges? What were their methods of judging? What were the categories in which prizes were awarded? What were the prizes?



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