In the last thirty years there have been several important studies of public buildings, and particularly fora and their associated annexes, of Roman Britain and the western Empire. Yet neither the older surveys and monographs nor the recent publications focus on the fora of Africa Proconsularis. The fora of this province have rarely been the subject of a regional survey. This thesis is a study of the origins, development, architecture and types of Romano-African fora. Such a study is useful in providing an understanding of the architectural characteristics of Romano-African fora, the manner in which they differed from and resembled those in Europe (Italy, Gaul, Britain and Spain) and of the types of activities for which they were used. Chapter one provides a summary of the origin and development of Republican fora, with particular emphasis on examples from Italy. Chapter two covers the first imperial period, from the conquest of Africa in 146 BC until the end of the Julio-Claudian period. Chapter three focuses on developments of the Flavian period in Africa Proconsularis. Chapter four centres on developments in the fora of Africa Proconsularis from the end of the Flavian period to the early third century.
The Parthenon is arguably the greatest monument in western civilization. This temple, erected on the Acropolis in Athens between 447 and 432 B.C., was a symbol of the power of Athens which, at this time, was the leader of a large empire. In ancient times, authors such as Plutarch, Pliny and Pausanias have made specific references to its beauty and significance as a work of art, providing firsthand accounts and observations of many important aspects that are no longer available. These accounts were then supplemented, following the temple's destruction by the Venetians in 1687, by such notable visitors as Jacques Carrey, William Pars, James Stuart and of course, Lord Elgin, who transplanted much of the temple's sculptural decoration to London. This fascination with the Parthenon has not dimished in modern times as the enormous quantity of scholarship, especially following the Second World War, would seem to suggest. These works by modern scholars cover almost every aspect of the edifice, including such topics as the temple's architecture, artistic programme, influences and historical significance. Perhaps the most interesting branch of scholarship on the Parthenon, however, is that which deals with the Parthenon frieze, the continuous band of figures sculpted in relief that was incorporated into the temple's architrave. It is the intention of this thesis to investigate the current state of this scholarship, looking particularly at the opinions and theories that have arisen since W.B. Dinsmoor accounted for all existing portions of the frieze in 1954 up to the present. More specifically, this investigation will evaluate two opinions that have been commonly accepted by modern scholars and subsequently reamin prevalent throughout the entire body of scholarship. The first involves the identification of the frieze as an element of standard Ionic architecture and its incorporation into a Doric temple. Whereas most scholars have accepted this observation as fact and thus have attempted to contrive compelling theories accounting for this unusual combination of canons, this theory will reexamine the evidence on which this supposition has been based in an attempt to evaluate the validity of these theories. Second, this thesis will investigate the identification of the figures on the frieze as those engaging in the Panathenaic procession that accompanied the annual festival of Athena in Athens. Despite many flaws and inconsistencies, this interpretation remains the one most widely accepted among modern scholars. Finally, this thesis will conclude with a new analysis of the frieze in an attempt to stimulate new and innovative approaches in its interpretation and shed new light on a work of art that has been shrouded by the obscurity of the legacy it has left behind.
The five extant Greek novels and Luke-Acts offer an excellent opportunity to study friendship in antiquity. The authors of the novels and Luke-Acts all portray friends and friendships without discussing them as philosophy. Although it is not a central theme of these stories, this dissertation will show that without forming friendships, the protagonists of these stories could not have accomplished their goals. The most important common theme that four of the five Greek novels and Luke-Acts share is that of travel. The heroes of the novels, as well as Jesus and his disciples, form friendships with the people they encounter as they journey and must depend on the kindness of strangers to continue their travels. Without the willingness of others to assist them, neither the heroes of the novels nor the apostles of the New Testament could have been successful in their journeys. It will be shown, then, that a change of friendship traditions from those centered around the polis to friendships that extended to the entire human race are the friendships most common in the Greek novels and in Luke-Acts.