Creating Accessible PDF files using OpenOffice (Mac)
Why make documents accessible?
Making accessible documents ensures that they usable by the widest range of users, but also ensures your document is easier to edit and navigate. It is important to make these changes to Word documents to accommodate a variety of disabilities. For example, many people with visual disabilities use screen readers which read aloud information on the screen such as text or image descriptions provided through alternative text (Alt Text).
If you plan, format, and structure your document correctly in the beginning, it will ensure the file is not only accessible but can also be converted into a variety of different alternate formats (e.g. PDF or braille) while retaining its accessibility features.
- As of January 1, 2013, Ontario Regulation 191/11, section 15: requirement to provide educational or training resources or materials in an accessible format, if notification of need is given.
- If posting document online - By January 1, 2014, Ontario Regulation 191/11, section 14: new internet websites and web content on those sites must conform with WCAG 2.0 Level A.
- As of January 1, 2015, Ontario Regulation 191/11, section 12: requirement to provide, upon request, accessible formats and communication supports.
What are Accessible PDF files?
Usually, accessible PDF files are “tagged” documents. Tags are hidden accessible elements that provide structure for screen readers.
PDF files are usually created from applications such as Microsoft Word or PowerPoint but there are many more. Creating accessible PDF files depends on the accessibility of the original document like the use of headings, alt text for images and colour contrast etc. for example. Please view tutorials for Creating Accessible Word Documents for Word, or Mac, Creating Accessible PowerPoint Presentations Word, or Mac for more information.
Although you can create PDF files using several programs, it is best practice to use Adobe Acrobat Professional in conjuncture to evaluate, repair, and enhance the accessibility of existing PDF files.
Accessibility Issues with Macs
Unlike Word 2010 for Windows, MS Word 2011 for Mac does not have the ability to create tagged PDF natively. The best way to create accessible PDF files using a Mac is to use OpenOffice for Mac. OpenOffice is a free, open source, office suite software.
- Ensure your Word document is accessible. Please see the tutorial Creating “Accessible Word Documents using MS Word 2011 for Mac”.
- Download and install at OpenOffice.org following instructions on the Web site, if not already installed.
- Create a second copy of your Word and PowerPoint files. For best results, save your original files as the older format .doc.
- Open your Word document in Open Office.
Creating a Tagged PDF using OpenOffice for Mac
The first step is to make sure the headings, lists, and other style elements are correct and present in your OpenOffice document. Usually, heading are fine but bulleted lists need to be reformatted.
The alternative text for images (alt text) was probably removed during the transfer from MS Word to OpenOffice and must be added again.
To add alternative text to an image, depending on your version, you can either:
- Right-click the image (Ctrl + Click on Mac) and select “Picture” (or double click the picture, or select “Format” then “Picture” from the menu bar). Then select the “Options” tab and enter the description in the box labelled “Alternative (Text only)”.
- Right-click or Control+click on image and select “Description” option. Then, fill in the “Description Field” and select "OK."
Exporting Tagged PDF
To export your OpenOffice document as a tagged PDF simply select “File” from the menu then “Export as PDF…”
Then the “PDF Options” window opens. Then check “Tagged PDF”. Then select the “Export” button on the bottom.
Using Adobe Acrobat Professional
Now that you have a saved PDF file, you need to ensure the tagging and reading order allow for proper accessibility. As previously mentioned, Adobe Acrobat Professional is used to evaluate, repair, and enhance the accessibility of existing PDF files. The software is available at the Queen’s Computer Store for departments, faculty, staff, and students.
One step of checking the accessibility of the document is to view the tags. When a PDF is tagged properly, the logical structure of the file can be read by a screen reader or other assistive technology in an appropriate manner. This can lead to better reading and navigation while using these assistive technologies. The “Tags pane” can be opened by selecting “View”, then “Show/Hide”, then “Navigation Panes”, then “Tags”.
Within the Tags pane, you may view, reorder, rename, modify, delete, and create tags.
By selecting each tag in the list, the corresponding content in the document will be highlighted (if not, check “Highlight Content” from the “Options” menu )
Add tags to an untagged document
Tags may be added to an untagged document, choose “Tools” from the right-hand menu, then select “Accessibility”, then “Add Tags to Document”.
TouchUp Reading Order
With this tool, the user can add and edit PDF tags and view the reading order of elements on the page. It is important to note that this method should not take the place of using the “Tags pane”. Certain tags, such as lists, are only available in the Tags pane.
To use the tool, select “Tools” from the right-hand menu, then “Accessibility”, then “TouchUp Reading Order”.
You will notice a couple of things. First, all the content of your document will be enclosed by various numbered boxes. These boxes represent a tag and the number corresponds with the tag number in the “Order” pane (more information in the next section). Secondly, the “TouchUp Reading Order” window will also open.
The window has groups of buttons so you can edit and add tags to any numbered block of text in your document or selected text/objects of your choice.
The Order pane allows you to change the reading order of the content on the page so it matches the visual reading order. To open the Order pane, select “View”, then “Show/Hide”, then “Navigation Panes”, then “Order”.
The “Order pane” divides the document into pages and every element is ordered into the reading order. This makes changing the tags and reading order much easier by simply drag-and-drop the elements into the desired order.
Adobe Acrobat Professional X can run an “Accessibility Full Check”. This can be a good tool to ensure that nothing was overlooked. Run the full check by, selecting “Tools” in the right-hand column, then “Advanced”, then “Accessibility”, then “Full Check”. This action opens another window. On the bottom right-hand side select “Start Checking”. This will generate a report of accessibility errors and tell you how to fix them.
The Create Accessible PDFs” Action Wizard in Acrobat X is a tool to ensure that you don't miss any steps while making your document accessible. To run the wizard, select the “Tools” in the right-hand column, then “Action Wizard”, then “Create Accessible PDFs”.
Read Out Loud
Read Out Loud is a built-in voice synthesizer that is available in Adobe Reader and Acrobat that reads the content of a PDF document out loud to you. You can get a good idea of what screen reader users encounter.